# Science et Vie

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## Les parutions sur ScienceDirect. Mot clé : "Muscle"

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## Les parutions sur ScienceDirect. Mot clé "Stiffness"

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## Les parutions sur ScienceDirect. Mot clé "EMG"

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• Neuro-Ophthalmology/Orbit
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 2018
Source:Case Reviews in Ophthalmology

Author(s): Neil J. Friedman, Peter K. Kaiser

• 7 Nerve Compression Syndromes
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 2018
Source:Clinical Orthopaedic Rehabilitation: a Team Approach

Author(s): S. Brent Brotzman, Steven R. Novotny

• 18 Lateral and Medial Humeral Epicondylitis
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 2018
Source:Clinical Orthopaedic Rehabilitation: a Team Approach

Author(s): Todd S. Ellenbecker, George J. Davies

• 20 General Principles of Shoulder Rehabilitation
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 2018
Source:Clinical Orthopaedic Rehabilitation: a Team Approach

Author(s): Robert C. Manske

• 22 Rotator Cuff Tendinitis in the Overhead Athlete
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 2018
Source:Clinical Orthopaedic Rehabilitation: a Team Approach

Author(s): Michael J. O’Brien, Felix H. Savoie

• 23 Rotator Cuff Repair
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 2018
Source:Clinical Orthopaedic Rehabilitation: a Team Approach

Author(s): Robert C. Manske

• 26 Rehabilitation for Biceps Tendon Disorders and SLAP Lesions
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 2018
Source:Clinical Orthopaedic Rehabilitation: a Team Approach

Author(s): Geoffrey S. Van Thiel, Sanjeev Bhatia, Neil S. Ghodadra, Jonathan Yong Kim, Matthew T. Provencher

• 30 Shoulder Exercises for Injury Prevention in the Throwing Athlete
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 2018
Source:Clinical Orthopaedic Rehabilitation: a Team Approach

Author(s): John A. Guido, Keith Meister

• 32 Postural Consideration for the Female Athlete’s Shoulder
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 2018
Source:Clinical Orthopaedic Rehabilitation: a Team Approach

Author(s): Janice K. Loudon

• 35 Thoracic Outlet Syndrome in the Overhead Athlete
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 2018
Source:Clinical Orthopaedic Rehabilitation: a Team Approach

Author(s): Robert C. Manske

• 43 Inferior Heel Pain (Plantar Fasciitis)
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 2018
Source:Clinical Orthopaedic Rehabilitation: a Team Approach

Author(s): S. Brent Brotzman, John J. Jasko

• 58 Hip Strength and Kinematics in Patellofemoral Syndrome
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 2018
Source:Clinical Orthopaedic Rehabilitation: a Team Approach

Author(s): Lori A. Bolgla

• 61 Articular Cartilage Procedures of the Knee
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 2018
Source:Clinical Orthopaedic Rehabilitation: a Team Approach

Author(s): G. Kelley Fitzgerald, James J. Irrgang

• 72 Therapeutic Exercise for the Cervical Spine
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 2018
Source:Clinical Orthopaedic Rehabilitation: a Team Approach

Author(s): Christopher J. Durall

• 74 Core Stabilization Training
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 2018
Source:Clinical Orthopaedic Rehabilitation: a Team Approach

Author(s): Barbara J. Hoogenboom, Kyle Kiesel

• 76 Rehabilitation Following Lumbar Disc Surgery
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 2018
Source:Clinical Orthopaedic Rehabilitation: a Team Approach

• 16 Secondary Hypertension
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 2018
Source:Hypertension: A Companion to Braunwald's Heart Disease

Author(s): Ailia W. Ali, Patrick J. Strollo

• Chapter 12 Headache
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 2018
Source:Integrative Medicine

Author(s): Remy R. Coeytaux, John Douglas Mann

• Chapter 109 Strain/Counterstrain
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 2018
Source:Integrative Medicine

Author(s): Harmon Myers, Julia Jernberg

• Chapter 13 Interstitial Lung Disease in the Connective Tissue Diseases
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 2018
Source:Interstitial Lung Disease

Author(s): Danielle Antin-Ozerkis, Ami Rubinowitz, Janine Evans, Robert J. Homer, Richard A. Matthay

The connective tissue diseases (CTDs) are inflammatory, immune-mediated disorders in which interstitial lung disease (ILD) is common and clinically important. ILD may be the first manifestation of a CTD in a previously healthy patient. CTD-associated ILD frequently presents with the gradual onset of cough and dyspnea, although rarely may present with fulminant respiratory failure. Infection and drug reaction should always be ruled out. A diagnosis of idiopathic ILD should never be made without a careful search for subtle evidence of underlying CTD. Treatment of CTD-ILD typically includes corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents. The authors discuss the diagnostic approach to CTD-ILD and provide a focused discussion of treatment for several common forms of CTD-ILD.

• 29 Hypotonia, Weakness, and Stroke
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 2018
Source:Nelson Pediatric Symptom-Based Diagnosis

Author(s): Chamindra Konersman

• 33 Arthritis
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 2018
Source:Nelson Pediatric Symptom-Based Diagnosis

Author(s): James Nocton, Dominic Co

• 6 Intraoperative Neuromonitoring for Specific Neurosurgical Procedures
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 2018
Source:Neurocritical Care Management of the Neurosurgical Patient

Author(s): Claudia F. Clavijo, Benjamin K. Scott

• 19 Cerebellopontine Angle Tumors
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 2018
Source:Neurocritical Care Management of the Neurosurgical Patient

Author(s): Geoffrey P. Stricsek, James J. Evans, Christopher J. Farrell

• 44 Management of Traumatic Brachial Plexus Injuries
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 2018
Source:Neurocritical Care Management of the Neurosurgical Patient

Author(s): Zarina S. Ali, Luke Macyszyn, Eric L. Zager

• Procedure 51 Open Carpal Tunnel Release
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 2018
Source:Operative Techniques: Hand and Wrist Surgery

Author(s): Yuki Fujihara, Kevin C. Chung, Jennifer F. Waljee

• Procedure 5 Anterior C1-C2 Arthrodesis
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 2018
Source:Operative Techniques: Spine Surgery

Author(s): Michael Schiraldi, Eli M. Baron, Alexander R. Vaccaro

• Procedure 18 Anterior Thoracic Diskectomy and Corpectomy
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 2018
Source:Operative Techniques: Spine Surgery

Author(s): Christopher C. Harrod, Devan B. Moody, Alexander R. Vaccaro

• 8 Transvenous Lead Placement
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 2018
Source:Surgical Implantation of Cardiac Rhythm Devices

Author(s): Andrea M. Russo, Ulrika Birgersdotter-Green

• Effects of the Bad Ragaz Ring Method on muscle activation of the lower limbs and balance ability in chronic stroke: A randomised controlled trial
22 mai 2017
Publication date: December 2017
Source:Hong Kong Physiotherapy Journal, Volume 37

Author(s): Hyun-Gyu Cha, Young-Jun Shin, Myoung-Kwon Kim

Background Recovery of balance and walking abilities is important for the rehabilitation of stroke patients. Objectives To evaluate the effects of the Bad Ragaz Ring method on functional recovery in chronic stroke patients. Methods Twenty-two chronic stroke patients were randomly assigned to two groups: a Bad Ragaz Ring method group (the experimental group) or a control group. Stroke patients in the experimental group underwent Bad Ragaz Ring exercise and comprehensive rehabilitation therapy, whereas patients in the control group underwent comprehensive rehabilitation therapy alone. The participants in both groups received therapy 3 days per week for 6 weeks. Muscle activations, balance indices, and Timed Up and Go test results were assessed before and after the 6-week therapy period. Results The experimental group showed significant improvements in activations of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles, balance index, and Timed Up and Go test results as compared with preintervention results (p &lt; 0.05), whereas the control group showed significant improvement in Timed Up and Go test (p &lt; 0.05). Significant differences in posttraining gains in the activations of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles and in balance index were observed between the experimental and control groups (p &lt; 0.05). Effect sizes for gains in the experimental and control groups were strong for tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles (effect sizes, 1.04 and 1.45 respectively). Conclusion The Bad Ragaz Ring method may be beneficial for improving balance and leg muscle activation of chronic stroke patients.

• META-DES.Oracle: Meta-learning and feature selection for dynamic ensemble selection
22 mai 2017
Publication date: November 2017
Source:Information Fusion, Volume 38

Author(s): Rafael M.O. Cruz, Robert Sabourin, George D.C. Cavalcanti

Dynamic ensemble selection (DES) techniques work by estimating the competence level of each classifier from a pool of classifiers, and selecting only the most competent ones for the classification of a specific test sample. The key issue in DES is defining a suitable criterion for calculating the classifiers’ competence. There are several criteria available to measure the level of competence of base classifiers, such as local accuracy estimates and ranking. However, using only one criterion may lead to a poor estimation of the classifier’s competence. In order to deal with this issue, we have proposed a novel dynamic ensemble selection framework using meta-learning, called META-DES. A meta-classifier is trained, based on the meta-features extracted from the training data, to estimate the level of competence of a classifier for the classification of a given query sample. An important aspect of the META-DES framework is that multiple criteria can be embedded in the system encoded as different sets of meta-features. However, some DES criteria are not suitable for every classification problem. For instance, local accuracy estimates may produce poor results when there is a high degree of overlap between the classes. Moreover, a higher classification accuracy can be obtained if the performance of the meta-classifier is optimized for the corresponding data. In this paper, we propose a novel version of the META-DES framework based on the formal definition of the Oracle, called META-DES.Oracle. The Oracle is an abstract method that represents an ideal classifier selection scheme. A meta-feature selection scheme using an overfitting cautious Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO) is proposed for improving the performance of the meta-classifier. The difference between the outputs obtained by the meta-classifier and those presented by the Oracle is minimized. Thus, the meta-classifier is expected to obtain results that are similar to the Oracle. Experiments carried out using 30 classification problems demonstrate that the optimization procedure based on the Oracle definition leads to a significant improvement in classification accuracy when compared to previous versions of the META-DES framework and other state-of-the-art DES techniques.

• Adaptive torque estimation of robot joint with harmonic drive transmission
22 mai 2017
Publication date: November 2017
Source:Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Volume 96

Author(s): Zhiguo Shi, Yuankai Li, Guangjun Liu

Robot joint torque estimation using input and output position measurements is a promising technique, but the result may be affected by the load variation of the joint. In this paper, a torque estimation method with adaptive robustness and optimality adjustment according to load variation is proposed for robot joint with harmonic drive transmission. Based on a harmonic drive model and a redundant adaptive robust Kalman filter (RARKF), the proposed approach can adapt torque estimation filtering optimality and robustness to the load variation by self-tuning the filtering gain and self-switching the filtering mode between optimal and robust. The redundant factor of RARKF is designed as a function of the motor current for tolerating the modeling error and load-dependent filtering mode switching. The proposed joint torque estimation method has been experimentally studied in comparison with a commercial torque sensor and two representative filtering methods. The results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed torque estimation technique.

• Droplet distribution during sub-picosecond laser deposition of gold nanoparticles
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 15 October 2017
Source:Applied Surface Science, Volume 419

Author(s): Francisco Gontad, Maura Cesaria, Argyro Klini, Aleka Manousaki, Alessio Perrone, Anna Paola Caricato

Even if it has been recently assessed that sub-picosecond ablation is not a “melting-free” process, a systematic investigation of the issue of droplets is still lacking. In this paper we discuss the effects of fluence (F=0.3, 1, 3J/cm2), target-substrate distance (dTS =5, 6, 7, 8, 9cm) and number of laser pulses per site (Np/s =2, 12, 22, 36, 96) on the morphology in terms of droplets and plasmonic response of gold nanoparticles deposited by sub-picosecond pulsed laser ablation. Among metals, gold is an ideal candidate to study the occurrence of droplets due to its low electron-phonon coupling that favors the appearance of heat affected zones. Our findings demonstrate that Np/s affects the production of large droplets more intensely than F and dTS. In fact, increasing Np/s produced much larger droplets than the ones obtained by tuning the fluence and an increment in the droplet density of 10 times. On the other hand, while the maximum density of small droplets (average diameter0.15μm) occurs at F=1J/cm2 (with respect to 0.3J/cm2 and 3J/cm2), the total droplet density exhibits a minimum at such fluence.

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• Using combined optimization, GC–MS and analytical technique to analyze the germination effect on phenolics, dietary fibers, minerals and GABA contents of Kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum)
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 15 October 2017
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 233

Author(s): Seema Sharma, Dharmesh C. Saxena, Charanjit S. Riar

A central composite rotatable design was applied to study the effects of soaking time, germination time and temperature on the responses; total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity for the biochemical enhancement of bioactive components of Kodo millet. The optimum conditions for producing germinated Kodo millet flour of highest TPC (83.01mgGAE/100g), TFC (87.53mgRUE/g) and AoxA (91.34%), were soaking time (13.81h), germination temperature (38.75°C) and germination time (35.82h). Protein increased significantly form, 6.7 to 7.9%, dietary fibers from 35.30 to 38.34g/100g, minerals from 232.82 to 251.73mg/100g, GABA contents from 9.36 to 47.43mg/100g, whereas phytates and tannins decreased from 1.344 to 0.997mol/kg and 1.603 to 0.234mg/100g respectively, in optimized germinated Kodo millet sample. Six new bioactive compounds [n-propyl-9,12,15-octadecatrienoate (0.86%), pregan,20-one-2hydroxy,5,6,epox-15-methyl (3.45%), hexa-decanoicacid (8.19%), 9,O-ctadecenoicacid (5.00%), butyl-6,9,12,15-octadecatetraenoate (4.03%), hexadecanoicacid-methylester (1.43%)], synthesized as a result of germination under optimum conditions in the Kodo millet depicted the germination potential of millets as a source of valuable bioactive compounds.

• Comparison of decision tree based classification strategies to detect external chemical stimuli from raw and filtered plant electrical response
22 mai 2017
Publication date: October 2017
Source:Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Volume 249

Author(s): Shre Kumar Chatterjee, Saptarshi Das, Koushik Maharatna, Elisa Masi, Luisa Santopolo, Ilaria Colzi, Stefano Mancuso, Andrea Vitaletti

Plants monitor their surrounding environment and control their physiological functions by producing an electrical response. We recorded electrical signals from different plants by exposing them to Sodium Chloride (NaCl), Ozone (O3) and Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) under laboratory conditions. After applying pre-processing techniques such as filtering and drift removal, we extracted few statistical features from the acquired plant electrical signals. Using these features, combined with different classification algorithms, we used a decision tree based multi-class classification strategy to identify the three different external chemical stimuli. We here present our exploration to obtain the optimum set of ranked feature and classifier combination that can separate a particular chemical stimulus from the incoming stream of plant electrical signals. The paper also reports an exhaustive comparison of similar feature based classification using the filtered and the raw plant signals, containing the high frequency stochastic part and also the low frequency trends present in it, as two different cases for feature extraction. The work, presented in this paper opens up new possibilities for using plant electrical signals to monitor and detect other environmental stimuli apart from NaCl, O3 and H2SO4 in future.

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• Combined effect of low back muscle fatigue and passive tissue elongation on the flexion-relaxation response
22 mai 2017
Publication date: September 2017
Source:Applied Ergonomics, Volume 63

Author(s): Sangeun Jin, Gary A. Mirka

Previous literature has documented the alterations in the flexion-relaxation response of the lumbar extensor musculature to passive tissue elongation (PTE) and muscle fatigue (MF). There is no study, however, that has explored this response as a function of the combined effect of both PTE and MF, which is often seen in occupational settings. Twelve participants performed three experimental protocols on three different days to achieve (1) PTE, (2) MF and (3) PTE&amp;MF (combined). Trunk kinematics and muscle activities were monitored to assess the effects of these protocols on the peak lumbar flexion angle and the lumbar angle of the flexion-relaxation of the trunk extensor muscles. Results showed responses to the uni-dimensional stresses (PTE and MF) consistent with those seen in the previous literature, while the combined protocol elicited responses that more closely matched the PTE protocol.

• Abdominal bracing during lifting alters trunk muscle activity and body kinematics
22 mai 2017
Publication date: September 2017
Source:Applied Ergonomics, Volume 63

Author(s): Pieter Coenen, Amity Campbell, Kevin Kemp-Smith, Peter O'Sullivan, Leon Straker

We assessed whether participants are able to perform abdominal bracing during lifting, and described its effects on trunk muscle activity and body kinematics. Fourteen participants performed 10 lifts (symmetrical lifting of a 15 kg load from floor level), 5 with abdominal bracing and 5 without. Activity of the lumbar multifidus (LM) and internal oblique (IO) muscles, and trunk and lower body kinematics were obtained. During non-bracing lifting, IO activity did not increase beyond rested standing levels (with average muscle activity ranging between 8.2 and 9.1% maximum voluntary contraction; %MVC), while LM activity did (range: 8.5–21.0 %MVC). During bracing lifting, muscle activity was higher compared to non-bracing in IO and LM at the start of the lift (with average between condition differences up to 10.9 %MVC). Upper leg, pelvis and lumbar spine angles were smaller, but thorax flexion angles were larger while lifting with bracing compared to without (with average between condition differences ranging from 0.7° to 4.3°). Although participants do not typically brace their abdominal muscles while lifting, they can be trained to do so. There appears to be no clear advantage of abdominal bracing during lifting, leaving its value for low-back pain prevention unclear.

• Biosignal monitoring using wearables: Observations and opportunities
22 mai 2017
Publication date: September 2017
Source:Biomedical Signal Processing and Control, Volume 38

Author(s): Yashodhan Athavale, Sridhar Krishnan

Advances in data acquisition technologies, sensor design, data frameworks, smart device connectivities, Internet-of-things, rising health care costs and public awareness towards a better quality of life, have spurred a boom in development of wearable “health-tech” devices in the smart device market. Tele-monitoring of human body dynamics through activities of daily life has become a popular lifestyle choice for consumers, as it helps them keep track of parameters such as food intake, calories burnt, activity levels, or even calling the nearest health care facility during emergencies. Although these devices give the user an intuitive and interactive interface to track body parameters, their use is still limited when compared to vital body parameters in a clinical context. Through this study we are attempting to investigate the clinical applications of wearable devices for biosignal and disease monitoring. In this review study, we have covered a plethora of challenges and opportunities with respect to wearable device design and the inherent possibilities for biosignal analysis and interpretation. Additionally, we have also attempted a comparison of some vital biosignals obtained from wearables and clinical equivalents, which would be useful in determining specific criteria for designing a clinically relevant wearable device.

• Physical breakdown of bread and its impact on texture perception: A dynamic perspective
22 mai 2017
Publication date: September 2017
Source:Food Quality and Preference, Volume 60

Author(s): Jing Gao, Jane Jun-Xin Ong, Jeyakumar Henry, Weibiao Zhou

This study aimed to understand the impact of bread structure and its dynamic transformation on people’s chewing behaviour and texture perception. Results from 20 trained panellists showed that bread crust/skin was the dominating factor in oral processing. This ‘outer layer’ introduced a mechanical contrast which increased chewing effort, lowered swallowing thresholds but did not elicit more a complex texture sensation. Furthermore, a single-panellist study was conducted as a proof-of-concept to demonstrate a new temporal correlation method. Progressive fragmentation and hydration diminished the differences between heterogeneous and homogeneous samples, leading to converged bolus properties and chewing effort. However, the differences in texture perception and chewing frequency due to the presence of the crust/skin were not diminished and even became larger throughout oral processing. Hence, chewing force and chewing rhythm might have different modulation mechanisms. Overall, bolus hydrated sensation was largely used by the panellist to gauge the swallowing point while bolus texture was used in a feedback control to regulate the mastication behaviour.

• Do rye product structure, product perceptions and oral processing modulate satiety?
22 mai 2017
Publication date: September 2017
Source:Food Quality and Preference, Volume 60

Author(s): Saara Pentikäinen, Nesli Sozer, Johanna Närväinen, Kirsi Sipilä, Syed Ariful Alam, Raija-Liisa Heiniö, Jussi Paananen, Kaisa Poutanen, Marjukka Kolehmainen

Food structure and cephalic phase factors are hypothesized to contribute to postprandial satiety in addition to established food properties such as energy content, energy density, and macronutrient and fibre composition of a preload. This study aimed to evaluate if the structure of rye products has an impact on subjective feelings of satiety, and whether cephalic phase factors including oral processing, satiety expectations and perceived pleasantness modulate the interaction. Four wholegrain rye based samples (extruded flakes and puffs, bread and smoothie) were studied in terms of texture characteristics, in vivo oral processing, and expected satiety (n=26) and satiety as well as perceived pleasantness (n=16) (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02554162). The vast textural differences between products were reflected in mastication process, perceived pleasantness and satiety expectations. Extruded products required the most intensive mastication. Rye puffs and rye bread which were characterised by a solid and porous structure, and showed better satiety effect in the early postprandial phase compared to other products. Mastication effort interacted with satiety response. However, the products requiring the most intense mastication effort were not the most satiating ones. It seems that there are some food structure related factors that influence both mastication process and postprandial satiety, the mastication process itself not being the mediating factor. Higher palatability seems to weaken postprandial satiety response.

• The moderating role of end-tidal CO2 on upper trapezius muscle activity in response to sustained attention
22 mai 2017
Publication date: September 2017
Source:International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Volume 61

Author(s): Fiona Wixted, Leonard O’ Sullivan

With higher levels of automation in modern manufacturing, there is increased monitoring of the process by the human operator. Prolonged monitoring or sustained attention has been found to be stressful for human operators. Plant and process operators have also been found to have one of the highest level of work demands (work speed, pace) in a recent European survey (Eurofound, 2015). Along with this, the incidence of Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WRMSDs) remains at a high level in the manufacturing sector. This research endeavoured to determine if end-tidal CO2 levels decreased and upper trapezius muscle activity increased concurrently with increased levels of attention. We then developed a model to investigate if end-tidal CO2 moderated the relationship between mental workload due to sustained attention and upper trapezius muscle activity. The resulting interactional model found that end-tidal CO2 moderated the relationship (p = 0.004) when end-tidal CO2 reached the hypocapnic range (&gt;35 mm Hg). This model indicates the possibility that a high level of sustained attention is a risk factor in the development of WRMSDs and should therefore be included in workplace risk assessments.

• Directional and sectional ride comfort estimation using an integrated human biomechanical-seat foam model
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 1 September 2017
Source:Journal of Sound and Vibration, Volume 403

Author(s): Navid Mohajer, Hamid Abdi, Saeid Nahavandi, Kyle Nelson

In the methodology of objective measurement of ride comfort, application of a Human Biomechanical Model (HBM) is valuable for Whole Body Vibration (WBV) analysis. In this study, using a computational Multibody System (MBS) approach, development of a 3D passive HBM for a seated human is considered. For this purpose, the existing MBS-based HBMs of seated human are briefly reviewed first. The Equations of Motion (EoM) for the proposed model are then obtained and the simulation results are shown and compared with idealised ranges of experimental results suggested in the literature. The human-seat interaction is established using a nonlinear vibration model of foam with respect to the sectional behaviour of the seat foam. The developed system is then used for ride comfort estimation offered by a ride dynamic model. The effects of human weight, road class, and vehicle speed on the vibration of the human body segments in different directions are studied. It is shown that the there is a high correlation (more than 99.2%) between the vibration indices of the proposed HBM-foam model and the corresponding ISO 2631 WBV indices. In addition, relevant ISO 2631 indices that show a high correlation with the directional vibration of the head are identified.

• A new method for quantifying the performance of EEG blind source separation algorithms by referencing a simultaneously recorded ECoG signal
22 mai 2017
Publication date: September 2017
Source:Neural Networks, Volume 93

Author(s): Naoya Oosugi, Keiichi Kitajo, Naomi Hasegawa, Yasuo Nagasaka, Kazuo Okanoya, Naotaka Fujii

Blind source separation (BSS) algorithms extract neural signals from electroencephalography (EEG) data. However, it is difficult to quantify source separation performance because there is no criterion to dissociate neural signals and noise in EEG signals. This study develops a method for evaluating BSS performance. The idea is neural signals in EEG can be estimated by comparison with simultaneously measured electrocorticography (ECoG). Because the ECoG electrodes cover the majority of the lateral cortical surface and should capture most of the original neural sources in the EEG signals. We measured real EEG and ECoG data and developed an algorithm for evaluating BSS performance. First, EEG signals are separated into EEG components using the BSS algorithm. Second, the EEG components are ranked using the correlation coefficients of the ECoG regression and the components are grouped into subsets based on their ranks. Third, canonical correlation analysis estimates how much information is shared between the subsets of the EEG components and the ECoG signals. We used our algorithm to compare the performance of BSS algorithms (PCA, AMUSE, SOBI, JADE, fastICA) via the EEG and ECoG data of anesthetized nonhuman primates. The results (Best case &gt;JADE $=$ fastICA &gt;AMUSE $=$ SOBI $≥$ PCA &gt;random separation) were common to the two subjects. To encourage the further development of better BSS algorithms, our EEG and ECoG data are available on our Web site (http://neurotycho.org/) as a common testing platform.

• Gold-modified indium tin oxide as a transparent window in optoelectronic diagnostics of electrochemically active biofilms
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 15 August 2017
Source:Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Volume 94

Author(s): Igor Schmidt, Alaaeldin Gad, Gregor Scholz, Heidi Boht, Michael Martens, Meinhard Schilling, Hutomo Suryo Wasisto, Andreas Waag, Uwe Schröder

Microbial electrochemical technologies (METs) are one of the emerging green bioenergy domains that are utilizing microorganisms for wastewater treatment or electrosynthesis. Real-time monitoring of bioprocess during operation is a prerequisite for understanding and further improving bioenergy harvesting. Optical methods are powerful tools for this, but require transparent, highly conductive and biocompatible electrodes. Whereas indium tin oxide (ITO) is a well-known transparent conductive oxide, it is a non-ideal platform for biofilm growth. Here, a straightforward approach of surface modification of ITO anodes with gold (Au) is demonstrated, to enhance direct microbial biofilm cultivation on their surface and to improve the produced current densities. The trade-off between the electrode transmittance (critical for the underlying integrated sensors) and the enhanced growth of biofilms (crucial for direct monitoring) is studied. Au-modified ITO electrodes show a faster and reproducible biofilm growth with three times higher maximum current densities and about 6.9 times thicker biofilms compared to their unmodified ITO counterparts. The electrochemical analysis confirms the enhanced performance and the reversibility of the ITO/Au electrodes. The catalytic effect of Au on the ITO surface seems to be the key factor of the observed performance improvement since the changes in the electrode conductivity and their surface wettability are relatively small and in the range of ITO. An integrated platform for the ITO/Au transparent electrode with light-emitting diodes was fabricated and its feasibility for optical biofilm thickness monitoring is demonstrated. Such transparent electrodes with embedded catalytic metals can serve as multifunctional windows for biofilm diagnostic microchips.

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• Bending behaviour of two directional functionally graded sandwich beams by using a quasi-3d shear deformation theory
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 15 August 2017
Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174

Author(s): Armağan Karamanlı

This paper presents the static behaviour of two-directional functionally graded (FG) sandwich beams subjected to various sets of boundary conditions by using a quasi-3D shear deformation theory and the Symmetric Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SSPH) method. The SSPH code, which is developed based on the present formulation of the FG sandwich beam, is validated by solving a simply supported conventional functionally graded beam problem. Numerical results which are in terms of maximum dimensionless transverse deflections, dimensionless axial, normal and shear stresses are compared with the analytical solutions and the results from previous studies. Various FG sandwich beam structures are investigated by considering different aspect ratios (L/h) and sets of boundary conditions and using power-law distribution.

• Single channel surface EMG control of advanced prosthetic hands: A simple, low cost and efficient approach
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 15 August 2017
Source:Expert Systems with Applications, Volume 79

Author(s): Mahmoud Tavakoli, Carlo Benussi, Joao Luis Lourenco

Surface EMGs have been the primary sources for control of prosthetic hands due to their comfort and naturalness. The recent advances in the development of the prosthetic hands with many degrees of freedom and many actuators, requires many EMG channels to take the full advantage of the complex prosthetic terminals. Some EMG wearable devices were developed lately, that are able to detect several gestures. However, the main drawbacks of these systems are the cost, the size and the system complexity. In this paper, we suggest a simple, fast and low-cost system which can recognize up to 4 gestures with a single channel surface EMG signal. Gestures include hand closing, hand opening, wrist flexion and double wrist flexion. These gestures can be used to control a prosthetic terminal based on predefined grasp postures. We show that by using a high-dimensional feature space, together with a support vector machine algorithm, it is possible to classify these four gestures. Overall, the system showed satisfactory results in terms of classification accuracy, real time gesture recognition, and tolerance to hand movements through integration of a lock gesture. Calibration took only 30 seconds and session independence was demonstrated by high classification accuracy on different test sessions without repeating the calibration. As a case study we use this system to control a previously developed soft prosthetic hand. This is particularly interesting because we show that a simple hardware that has only a single channel EMG, can afford the control of a multi-DOF prosthetic hands. In addition, such system may be used as a general purpose Human Machine Interface for gaming,for controlling multimedia devices, or to control robots.

• Particle manipulations in non-Newtonian microfluidics: A review
22 mai 2017
Publication date: 15 August 2017
Source:Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Volume 500

Author(s): Xinyu Lu, Chao Liu, Guoqing Hu, Xiangchun Xuan

Microfluidic devices have been widely used since 1990s for diverse manipulations of particles (a general term of beads, cells, vesicles, drops, etc.) in a variety of applications. Compared to the active manipulation via an externally imposed force field, the passive manipulation of particles exploits the flow-induced intrinsic lift and/or drag to control particle motion with several advantages. Along this direction, inertial microfluidics has received tremendous interest in the past decade due to its capability to handle a large volume of samples at a high throughput. This inertial lift-based approach in Newtonian fluids, however, becomes ineffective and even fails for small particles and/or at low flow rates. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of elastic lift in non-Newtonian fluids for manipulating particles with a much smaller size and over a much wider range of flow rates. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the various passive manipulations, including focusing, separation, washing and stretching, of particles that have thus far been demonstrated in non-Newtonian microfluidics.

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• BiteStrip analysis of the effect of fluoxetine and paroxetine on sleep bruxism
22 mai 2017
Publication date: August 2017
Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 80

Author(s): M. Isa Kara, Elif Tarım Ertaş, Emrullah Ozen, Meral Atıcı, Selami Aksoy, Muharrem Serif Erdogan, Seyfi Kelebek

Objective The relationship between sleep bruxism (SB) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is still under debate because of the lack of well-designed objective studies. The current study investigates possible effects of SSRIs, fluoxetine, and paroxetine on SB in patients with anxiety and depression. Materials and methods Thirty users of SSRIs for treatment of depression or anxiety were enrolled in the study. After clinical and anamnestic examination, 15 fluoxetine and 15 paroxetine users were included. For an objective evaluation of SB, a single-use disposable home screening device, BiteStrip, was used prior to the first SSRI intake and was repeated on the 7th and 15th days. Patients’ self-reported data also were obtained for assessment of patient awareness. Results BiteStrip scores were significantly higher on the 7th and 15th days than the first measurement (p&lt;0.01). There was an increase in 26 (86.6%) patients’ bruxism scores on the 7th day. There was also an increase in 27 (90%) patients’ bruxism scores on the 15th day. But according to patients’ self-reports, only 6 patients had an awareness that bruxism symptoms were initiated or exacerbated 15days after starting fluoxetine or paroxetine. Conclusion Fluoxetine and paroxetine, SSRIs used for the treatment of anxiety and depression, may initiate or aggravate SB. Clinicians should consider that SSRIs may be the cause of SB when SSRI users are referred to dental clinics for SB symptoms. As there is a shortage of researches on this subject, further studies are necessary to confirm the existence of SSRI-induced SB.

• Cross-association analysis of EEG and EMG signals according to movement intention state
22 mai 2017
Publication date: August 2017
Source:Cognitive Systems Research, Volume 44

Author(s): Byeongnam Kim, Laehyun Kim, Yun-Hee Kim, Sun K. Yoo

Rehabilitation within three months plays a significant role in the recovery of damaged motor functions following the onset of a stroke. To increase the effectiveness of rehabilitation, it is important to perform rehabilitative exercises with movement intention. This study analyzed the association between electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) signals in healthy individuals in an attempt to verify the differences between the two signals in corticomuscular connectivity as well as the time delay in the flow of information in accordance with the presence of movement intention. To examine the relationship between the brain and muscles, coherence and mutual information analyses were performed on the EEG signals in the motor cortex and EMG signals in the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle during grasping training. Coherence and mutual information between EEG and EMG signals were significantly higher and the time delay of information flow was shorter when subjects performed active exercise with movement intention than when they performed passive exercise without movement intention. These findings could be applied to the rehabilitation of stroke patients to develop a rehabilitative training system with heightened effectiveness through verification of the presence of movement intention in the patients.

• Reflexology and polysomnography: Changes in cerebral wave activity induced by reflexology promote N1 and N2 sleep stages
22 mai 2017
Publication date: August 2017
Source:Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, Volume 28

Author(s): N. Esmel-Esmel, E. Tomás-Esmel, M. Tous-Andreu, A. Bové-Ribé, M. Jiménez-Herrera

Background Several studies have shown the effectiveness of reflexology in different health problems as well as obtaining a high degree of relaxation during its application. A previous study suggested a possible relation between the relaxation obtained during the reflexology session and the sleep. However, the design of the study did not provide evidence for this hypothesis. In this study, we use a polysomnogram to investigate the effects during its application. Method Prospective experimental study conducted in a sleep laboratory. Twelve healthy adults were enrolled. Two groups were created based on whether or not they had knowledge of reflexology. Reflexology was applied for 35 min and their sleep effects were measured by means of polysomnography. A descriptive and bivariate analysis was performed. A bivariate analysis conducted through chi-square test or ANOVA was considered appropriate. Results After controlling for baseline data, nine of the participants did move toward N1 (p = 0.833) and N2 (p = 0.227) stages, remaining in these states between 4 min and 25.5 min. No significant differences were found between the two groups. Conclusions The application of reflexology induces changes in the activity of brain waves in correspondence with the appearance of a high degree of sleepiness and sleep (N1 and N2 NREM sleep). There is a gradual transition and an orderly progression from wakefulness to sleep, which could explain the effects of relaxation and well being obtained with this method, as well as many other benefits.

Mis à jour le 03 avril 2013