Management

ScienceDirect Management & Sport :

  • Prediction from regional angst – A study of NFL sentiment in Twitter using technical stock market charting
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: June 2017
    Source:Decision Support Systems, Volume 98

    Author(s): Robert P. Schumaker, Chester S. Labedz, A. Tomasz Jarmoszko, Leonard L. Brown

    To predict NFL game outcomes, we examine the application of technical stock market techniques to sentiment gathered from social media. From our analysis we found a $14.84 average return per sentiment-based wager compared to a $12.21 average return loss on the entire 256 games of the 2015–2016 regular season if using an odds-only approach. We further noted that wagers on underdogs (i.e., the less favored teams) that exhibit a “golden cross” pattern in sentiment (e.g., the most recent sentiment signal crosses the longer baseline sentiment), netted a $48.18 return per wager on 41 wagers. These results show promise of cross-domain research and we believe that applying stock market techniques to sports wagering may open an entire new research area.





  • Predicting behavioral loyalty through corporate social responsibility: The mediating role of involvement and commitment
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: June 2017
    Source:Journal of Business Research, Volume 75

    Author(s): Yuhei Inoue, Daniel C. Funk, Heath McDonald

    This study examines whether consumers' perceptions of corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities can predict behavioral loyalty, and how two attitudinal constructs drawing from the means-end chain model—involvement and commitment—mediate this relationship. A field study of 634 customers of an Australian professional football team was conducted by combining attitudinal surveys with actual behavioral data collected one year later. The results revealed a positive mediating effect of involvement on the relationship between perceived CSR and behavioral loyalty. However, when the effect of involvement on behavioral loyalty was mediated by commitment, the indirect effect of perceived CSR turned negative. The findings of this study indicate that the contribution of CSR initiatives to behavioral loyalty is not as robust as past research suggests, and is also contingent upon specific psychological states activated by consumers' perceptions of such initiatives.





  • Employers’ expectations of the employability skills needed in the sport and recreation environment
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: June 2017
    Source:Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, Volume 20

    Author(s): E. Tsitskari, M. Goudas, E. Tsalouchou, M. Michalopoulou

    This study aimed to test the applicability of the Survey of Employability Skills Needed in the Workforce (SESNW) (Robinson, 2006) in Greek sport employers. One hundred ninety three employers from three sectors participated in the study. Consecutive EFAs led to six robust factors of employability skills, labeled Professional Behavior & Development, Leadership & Influence, Problem Solving, Organization & Time Management, Communication Ability and (Inter)Personal skills. All factors were highly rated by the employers were no differences occurred between employment sectors. By understanding the competencies expected by employers, Universities may better align undergraduate programs with industry needs, enhancing the graduates' employability.

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  • A gap in the sport management curriculum: An analysis of sexual harassment and sexual assault education in the United States
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: June 2017
    Source:Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, Volume 20

    Author(s): Elizabeth A. Taylor, Robin Hardin

    Sport is a space possessing a permissive rape culture due to its masculine culture, and male-dominated professions have higher levels of sexual harassment and incivility compared to those industries that are gender equal or female-dominated. This research examined sport management students’ education and training on sexual harassment and sexual assault. Findings demonstrate that less than 50% of students are exposed to education on sexual harassment (46.1%) or sexual assault (35.9%) in the classroom, and less than 40% are exposed to training on sexual harassment (39.6%) or sexual assault (28.4%) in the internship setting. Students may be entering the professional workforce without the proper knowledge and training in regards to these issues.

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  • Management control in pulsating organisations—A multiple case study of popular culture events
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: June 2017
    Source:Management Accounting Research, Volume 35

    Author(s): Martin Carlsson-Wall, Kalle Kraus, Louise Karlsson

    Major events comprise an important aspect of popular culture. The pulsating nature of event organisations implies that they quickly expand at the time of the event and then contract. By examining six sport event organisations, detailed action planning was found to be crucial to ensure that both the structure and flexibility were guaranteed when the event took place. Detailed action planning served as the backbone in the chain of control in each case, connecting the evaluation based on non-financial measures with the budgeting, and with policies and procedures that were applied during the process. It created a shared understanding of the breakdown of responsibilities and duties and made it possible to clarify the role each individual played within the system and to determine when and how improvisation was needed. Our findings thereby provide important boundary conditions to the literature on ‘minimal structures’ by making it clear that ‘minimal’ management controls are not sufficient to handle the balance between structure and flexibility in pulsating organisations, which often rely on thousands of inexperienced employees to work together for a very short period of time. Detailed action planning helped create ‘operational representation’ (Bigley and Roberts, 2001), i.e. the basic cognitive infrastructure permitting individuals and groups to effectively integrate their behaviours with those of others on a moment-to-moment basis as the event unfolds. We also contribute by explaining important management control differences across the six organisations through the distinction between participation- and spectator-driven events.





  • Gains from horizontal collaboration among ski areas
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: June 2017
    Source:Tourism Management, Volume 60

    Author(s): Martin Falk

    Ski areas are known to expand by linking their lifts to neighbouring systems. Based on data from approximately 250 winter sport destinations in Austria, pooled over the years 1998–2014, this study explores the effects of such horizontal collaboration on the number of overnights stays in the area. A difference-in-differences (DID) approach combined with propensity score matching shows that new lift-linkages or expansions lead to a consolidation in the number of overnight stays at a level 12 per cent higher than before the introduction of the lift-link. However, there is a certain degree of heterogeneity in the causal effects. Satellite ski areas, remote villages and those who combine lift-linking with new connecting slopes benefit the most. More recent lift-linkages seem to lead to smaller gains than those established in the early years.





  • Impacts and implications of an annual major sport event: A host community perspective
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: Available online 22 May 2017
    Source:Journal of Destination Marketing & Management

    Author(s): Qin Yao, Eric C. Schwarz

    This study explores the impacts of the World Golf Championships HSBC Champions tournament in Shanghai, China, as perceived by host community residents over the past 10 years, and how those perceptions affected their attitudes towards the future hosting of this event. An empirical study was carried out and data collected from 1047 Shanghai residents using structured questionnaires. Multiple factor analysis identified six factors underlying the perceived impacts of the event. It was found that after over a decade of continuous staging, the WGC-HSBC Champions did not affect the life of most local residents due to their low awareness of the event. Despite that, the study also found that residents’ positive perceptions led to their support for the future hosting of the event, which confirms the usefulness of social exchange theory in explaining residents’ perceptions. Finally, implications for destination managers are discussed to ensure the needs of both visitors and residents are addressed.





  • ‘Yes we are inclusive’: Examining provision for young people with disabilities in community sport clubs
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: Available online 29 April 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Ruth Jeanes, Ramón Spaaij, Jonathan Magee, Karen Farquharson, Sean Gorman, Dean Lusher

    The last two decades within Australia have witnessed a range of policies and strategies seeking to promote the inclusion of young people with disabilities within mainstream community sport clubs. Whilst research at an institutional level has highlighted the problems with mainstreaming agendas, few studies have examined how grassroots clubs, as key components of the supply side of inclusive provision seek to respond to such policy imperatives. In this paper, therefore, the authors provide a critical analysis of the ways in which clubs engage with inclusion policies in practice. Theoretically, the authors draw on the concept of policy enactment and educational inclusivity. Through analysis of semi-structured interviews with club volunteers, the findings illustrate three key areas. Firstly, the importance of individual volunteers in establishing and developing provision within clubs; secondly, the largely separatist nature of disability provision within clubs; and thirdly, that policies tend to encourage club to focus on narrow forms of participation that lead to competitive pathways and mirror the structure of mainstream sport. In the conclusion, the authors problematize the notion of inclusion presented in policy and practice, suggesting such imperatives do not encourage a holistic approach.





  • Recruitment of volunteers connected with sports mega-events: A case study of the PyeongChang 2018 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: Available online 25 April 2017
    Source:Journal of Destination Marketing & Management

    Author(s): Young-Joo Ahn

    Volunteers play an important role in the successful hosting of sports mega-events. Volunteers help reduce operational costs of sports mega-events by reducing labor compensation. Volunteers offer skills and effort without rewards, but recruiting qualified volunteers for sports mega-events without incentive and reward is challenging. The present study adopts volunteer motivation and human resource management approaches. The psychological connection of volunteers with their task provides useful insights into their interests and their connection with volunteer work. This study empirically tests the relationships among volunteer motivation, recognition and rewards, connectedness, and intention to volunteer in the context of the PyeongChang 2018 Winter Olympic Games. A total of 232 surveys were administered to individuals. Empirical research suggests that leisure motivation is the most influential factor that affects the connectedness of volunteers followed by purposive motivation and egoistic motivation. External influences did not significantly affect connectedness. Among the factors of recognition and rewards, economic recognition and rewards positively influenced connectedness. Psychological and managerial recognition and rewards did not show a significant effect on connectedness. Empirical research also found that connectedness positively influenced intention to volunteer. This study empirically demonstrates that participation in volunteer work not only enhances the internal motivations of volunteers, but also strengthens the organizational supports offered by Olympic committees. This study extends this area of research on volunteer motivation to recognition and rewards in sports organizations, which is related to connectedness and behavioral intention of individuals. This present study provides several theoretical and practical implications.





  • LGBTQ parents’ experiences of community youth sport: Change your forms, change your (hetero) norms
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: Available online 21 April 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Dawn E. Trussell, Laura Kovac, Jen Apgar

    This interpretive study sought to critically examine lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ) parents’ experiences of community organized youth sport. Using a constant comparative method of data analysis, the authors examined perspectives of participants from Australia, Canada, and the United States. Three emergent themes best reflected the parents’ experiences: (a) anticipating sexual stigma and finding accepting communities; (b) confronting assumptions of heterosexuality; and (c) educating but not flag waving. Emphasis is placed on the parents intersecting social identities and notions of privilege (e.g., socio-economic resources and the ability to live in socially progressive areas), and how it altered their experiences within the community youth sport context. The findings call attention to the responsibility of youth sport organisations to create a climate of social change through inclusive language, behaviours, and program design.





  • Organizational hybridity: A conceptualization of how sport for development and peace organizations respond to divergent institutional demands
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: Available online 9 April 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Per G. Svensson

    An abundance of institutional logics is associated with the area of Sport for Development and Peace (SDP). Unfortunately, the ways in which SDP entities respond to conflicting institutional demands has received little scholarly attention. Therefore, the author examines the concept of organizational hybridity and its applicability in SDP. The divergent nature between institutional logics allow for organizational actors to reconfigure elements into new creative hybrid arrangements. Drawing on relevant literature from related disciplines, the author identifies and examines four theoretical types of hybrids in the SDP context: differentiated, symbolic, integrated, and dysfunctional. The internal dynamics and managerial implications associated with each hybrid type are further examined. In addition, a research agenda for how future scholarship can draw on this concept to generate new knowledge of these types of sport organizations is also outlined.





  • The role of interorganizational citizenship behaviors in the innovation process
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: April 2017
    Source:Journal of Business Research, Volume 73

    Author(s): Anna Gerke, Geoff Dickson, Michel Desbordes, Stephen Gates

    This paper investigates the role of citizenship in the innovation process. While there is a large amount of research on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), interorganizational citizenship behavior (ICB) has received less attention. This study examines a dense, localized cluster of private, public, and non-profit organizations. Seven dimensions characterize ICB during the different phases of the innovation process. These ICBs reflect 16 interorganizational practices that generate absorptive capacity. Seven of these practices occur during the ideation phase, five during the invention phase, and four during the exploitation phase. Cooperation and collaboration precede or underlie ICB. This study shows that spatial proximity is insufficient for enhancing innovation activities in industrial agglomerations and that ICB, collaboration, and cooperation are necessary. Therefore, these findings contribute to knowledge on the theory of innovation management and economic geography.





  • Introducing a Sport Experience Design (SX) framework for sport consumer behaviour research
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: April 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 20, Issue 2

    Author(s): Daniel C. Funk

    Sport Management Review celebrates 20 years of publishing research, and this milestone provides an opportunity to reflect on sport consumer research and offer possible directions for scholarship. This article utilizes a panel of 17 academic scholars to examine sport consumer research published in SMR as an exemplar; and then, more broadly, how to enhance sport consumer research and identify future trends in the sport industry. This information, combined with an article analysis, revealed two key findings. First, the quality of scholarship was acknowledged with noted weaknesses related to improving and diversifying methodology, stronger attention to theoretical development, and relevance to industry. Second, traditional boundaries of sport consumer research will expand due to technology, a broadening sport landscape, and links to other academic disciplines. In order to account for industry trends and address noted theoretical limitations, a Sport Experience Design (SX) framework is introduced, which consists of three interrelated elements: (a) the sport context in which a sport consumer navigates through an experience and interacts with touchpoints, (b) the sport user, with mental processes, psychological needs, and personal characteristics, and (c) the sport organization, which produces the sport experience to achieve organizational goals. The framework provides a holistic consumer-centred approach that considers cognitive, organizational, and physical relevant design factors that enhance customer satisfaction and engagement by improving use and pleasure of sport experiences.





  • Sport communication research: A social network analysis
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: April 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 20, Issue 2

    Author(s): Marion E. Hambrick

    Sport communication research has experienced exponential growth since the 1980s. As one of the four primary sport management functions, sport communication has formed a synergistic relationship with sport management. Researchers have documented this relationship and the continued role of communication within sport. The current study explored the evolution of sport communication research through social network analysis (SNA). This methodological approach offers a visual display of research collaborations and helps identify areas for growth—among researchers, academic institutions, and topics—in an effort to expand research productivity and diffusion. From January 1980 to June 2015, 1255 sport communication researchers shared 2537 collaborations and authored 1283 publications. Their studies most frequently examined topics such as gender, mass media, and sport consumption. The number of researchers, publications, collaborations, and researchers per publication increased over time. A select group of researchers hailed from a smaller number of universities and emerged as key contributors to the field. The findings underscore the importance of prominent researchers, academic institutions, and collaborations in the production of sport communication research. The study also outlines the benefits of using SNA to investigate a field's development and growth opportunities.





  • ‘I was there from the start’: The identity-maintenance strategies used by fans to combat the threat of losing
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: April 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 20, Issue 2

    Author(s): Jason P. Doyle, Daniel Lock, Daniel C. Funk, Kevin Filo, Heath McDonald

    On-field performances are a key, yet uncontrollable, determinant of team identification. In this research, we explore how fans of a new team, with an overwhelming loss to win ratio, maintain a positive social identity. Qualitative data gathered from 20 semi-structured interviews were used to address this research objective. Our findings indicated fans use social creativity and social mobility strategies to help preserve a positive and distinctive group identity. In the absence of success, fans evaluated the group on dimensions that reflected positively on, and emphasised the distinctiveness of, group membership. Fans also sought to increase their status in the group to increase the positivity of this association. We use these findings to extend understanding of social identity theory and provide recommendations for sport organisations with unfavourable performance records. Recommendations are themed around highlighting the unique nature of the group and favourable status comparisons between members of the in-group.





  • The paradoxical relationship between fantasy football and NFL consumption: Conflict development and consumer coping mechanisms
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: April 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 20, Issue 2

    Author(s): Mujde Yuksel, Mark A. McDonald, George R. Milne, Aron Darmody

    Fantasy sport participation represents an increasingly popular consumer experience among the contemporary sport consumption alternatives. Previous work on fantasy sports draws attention to both its positive and negative effects on traditional sport consumption. This study investigates fantasy football participants’ perspectives, meanings, and experiences regarding their fantasy football and NFL consumption behavior. Employing a grounded theory methodology, the study draws on literatures spanning from sport consumption and fantasy sports to consumer co-creation and intrapersonal conflict, and combines them with data collection and analysis. The outcome is a new organizing framework that illustrates why there is conflict between fantasy and favorite team fandom and how fantasy sport participants cope with this conflict. First, the study illustrates that this conflict stems from the non-traditional co-creation opportunities inherent in the empowering fantasy sports experience, which leads to a psychological connection to the fantasy team and players through the feeling of self-achievement. Second, the study identifies various coping strategies that sport consumers employ to manage conflicts with player selection (i.e., safe selection, convergent selection, divergent selection, and impartial selection strategies) and rooting interests (i.e., balanced interest, principal interest-shift, temporal interest-shift, and benefit-seeking interest-shift strategies).





  • Sponsors’ CSR strategies in sport: A sensemaking approach of corporations established in France
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: April 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 20, Issue 2

    Author(s): Mathieu Djaballah, Christopher Hautbois, Michel Desbordes

    This paper explores the perceptions and strategies of corporate sponsors established in France and involved in sport-related corporate social responsibility (S-CSR). Based on the theoretical framework of strategic sensemaking, interviews were conducted with sponsorship managers from 23 corporations involved in S-CSR partnerships with various sports properties. Each phase of the strategic sensemaking process was analyzed, resulting in the identification of three levels of ambiguity in the interpretative process: namely, perceived links between sports properties and CSR, links between S-CSR and sponsors’ own CSR, and links between S-CSR actions and the main sponsorship objectives. We described and gave evidence for seven strategies, highlighting the diversity of S-CSR rationales among sponsors. Other factors were found to influence the sensemaking process, namely sponsorship managers’ knowledge of their company's own CSR, collaboration between sponsorship and CSR departments, and the role of sports properties as sensegivers in S-CSR actions. Finally, we summarize our results in a process model of S-CSR strategic sensemaking in order to provide both sponsors and sports properties with a better understanding of the multiple possibilities for CSR leverage.





  • On the fast track? Using standard contracts in public–private partnerships for sports facilities: A case study
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: April 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 20, Issue 2

    Author(s): Martijn van den Hurk, Koen Verhoest

    Public–private partnerships (PPPs) for the provision of public infrastructure involve costly contracting processes. Standard contracts are modularly structured documents, which provide standard terms for these processes; it is argued that they help reduce transaction costs by limiting the room for contractual negotiations. We investigate the use of standard contracts in an embedded case study of a PPP policy program in the Belgian sports sector, and apply notions of standardization theory and transaction cost economics to explain the differences in the success of using these contracts. On the basis of desk research and interviews, our study demonstrates both successful and unsuccessful usage of standard contracts across a range of subcases, which include artificial pitches, sports halls, and multifunctional sports centers. Unsuccessful cases were characterized by an interference of local governments’ interests that was poorly managed by the leading public actor, and a persistently rigid attitude at the negotiation table of this latter actor. We further relate the different degrees of success to inappropriate government responses to the assets at hand. Finally, we proclaim a more cautious approach toward the standardization of contracts, both in theory and practice.





  • Consumer experience quality: A review and extension of the sport management literature
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: Available online 1 April 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Masayuki Yoshida

    Over the last two decades, the number of studies examining the roles of the core sport product, ancillary services, social interactions among consumers, and relationship marketing programs in the sport context has grown. However, it is also true that these topics have been advanced in many independent research endeavors depending on the touch points (e.g., sport, service, social, and communication encounters) being assessed. To integrate this body of research with sport consumer behavior, the purpose of this conceptual paper, which represents a contribution to the 20th anniversary of Sport Management Review (SMR), is to introduce the construct of consumer experience quality as consisting of four important dimensions – core product, service, social network, and relationship investment quality – into the sport management literature. In order to explain the utility of the proposed construct in the sport context, this article presents an integrative conceptual framework that draws on multiple theories and bodies of literature. A series of propositions are offered to not only understand the role of consumer experience quality in sport consumer decision-making, but also to specify the conditions under which sport consumers are more likely to be satisfied with the core sport product and ancillary services, feel and behave in response to brand-related stimuli, and engage in both transactional and non-transactional behaviors. The paper concludes that future research should be directed at testing the propositions offered in the conceptual framework.





  • Attitudes toward attending the 2016 Olympic Games and visiting Brazil after the games
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: April 2017
    Source:Tourism Management Perspectives, Volume 22

    Author(s): Claudio M. Rocha, Janet S. Fink

    Drawing on signaling theory and branding framework, the aim of this research was to describe the impacts of the interaction between, on the one hand, the brand images of the Olympic Games and Brazil (as a tourism destination), and on the other, attitudes toward attending the 2016 Rio Olympic Games and visiting the country after the event. A sample of American adults (n =722), most (82.2%) with at least one international travel experience, was analyzed. Results showed that the interaction between the hospitality associated with the Olympic Games hospitality and that of Brazil positively affected attitudes toward visiting the country after the Games. None of the tested interactions affected attitudes toward attending the 2016 Olympic Games. In the second part of the study, five focus groups with sport management graduate students (n =23) indicated that the association with the Olympic brand might bring fewer gains to Brazilian tourism than the expected.





  • A knockout to the NFL’s reputation?: A case study of the NFL’s crisis communications strategies in response to the Ray Rice scandal
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: Available online 21 March 2017
    Source:Public Relations Review

    Author(s): Othello Richards JR, Christopher Wilson, Kris Boyle, Jordan Mower

    The NFL was largely criticized for its mishandling of the Ray Rice controversy in 2014. This study identifies crisis communication strategies that both followed and deviated from established research-based models. Further, the study evaluates whether and how these response strategies were mismatched with the perceived level of crisis responsibility as predicted by theory. The results of this case illustrate the consequences of mismatching crisis communications strategies with perceived crisis responsibility. This study demonstrates the need for scholars to identify and study potential buffering factors that can shield organizations from short-term consequences of a crisis. Moreover, it suggests that researchers need to better understand the cumulative effect of negative reputation and crisis history that can accrue over time.





  • Preventing damage: The psychology of crisis communication buffers in organized sports
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: March 2017
    Source:Public Relations Review, Volume 43, Issue 1

    Author(s): Duncan Koerber, Nick Zabara

    Sports crisis communication is a growing field of study, with research focusing on the image repair of athletes and teams, fan solidarity during crises, and the role of mass and new media in crisis development. However, reflecting a broader tendency in crisis communication to emphasize the study of response strategies at the expense of other factors, sports crisis communication research has not examined the unique factors in sports that prevent crises from causing severe image and reputation damage. In this paper, we apply Coombs’ notion of buffers to argue for new attention to two particularly important buffers in sports: communities and political economy. These buffers often preclude the need for any response at all, and crisis communication practitioners would do well to implement them around their own sports teams to prevent damage from crises.





  • Sport managers’ perspectives on poverty and sport: The role of local sport authorities
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: Available online 24 February 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Hanne Vandermeerschen, Jeroen Scheerder

    Poverty and social exclusion are ‘wicked issues’ and require a joint approach from a wide array of policy fields. As practicing sport has become a customary activity, it has a part to play in fighting social exclusion. But to what extent is this a realistic expectation? Drawing on qualitative data gathered from semi-structured interviews at twenty local sport authorities in Flanders (Belgium), the aim of this study is to gain insight in the experiences of local sport authorities with people in poverty, and to identify barriers and facilitators for investing in the inclusion of this social group. Results indicate that facilitating inclusion for people in poverty is a challenging task for local sport managers. Policy initiatives, if any, often remain limited to providing financial discounts. Only a minority of local sport managers reported more comprehensive policies, involving different strategies. A major problem is the limited understanding and expertise of local sport managers with regard to poverty. Therefore, cooperation between sport managers and organisations from the social sector is crucial. Recommendations as to how the role of local sport authorities as a facilitator of social inclusion can be strengthened are formulated.





  • Network governance of a multi-level, multi-sectoral sport event: Differences in coordinating ties and actors
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Milena M. Parent, Christian Rouillard, Michael L. Naraine

    To understand how partners within a large, multi-sectoral network coordinated amongst one another, this paper empirically determined stakeholders’ network capital vis-à-vis centrality by focusing on the relationships within the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games. An embedded case study was built using 6382 pages of documents (e.g., meeting minutes, memos, newspaper articles, and annual reports) and 55 interviews, and analyzed using social network analysis. The results revealed actors used eight types of ties in their coordination efforts: collaboration, communication, coordinating bridge, instrumental, legal, regulatory, transactional, internal link, and external link. Also, highly centralized actors were context specific to each level of government, with the organizing committee and federal secretariat emerging as the most critical for coordination efforts. Findings empirically demonstrate the importance of the national/federal government to coordinate multi-sectoral sport event networks. Thus, sport event partners can consider structuring an event’s network administrative organization to fit their differing strategic goals.





  • Motor vehicles overtaking cyclists on two-lane rural roads: Analysis on speed and lateral clearance
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: February 2017
    Source:Safety Science, Volume 92

    Author(s): Carlos Llorca, Antonio Angel-Domenech, Fernando Agustin-Gomez, Alfredo Garcia

    Two-lane rural roads in Spain accommodate significant bicycle traffic volumes, mainly associated to sport and leisure activities. Motor vehicles’ higher speed, weight and volume, compared to cyclists, represent a serious safety concern when overtaking a bicycle. Spanish traffic rules determine a minimum 1.5m lateral distance. This research characterised 2928 overtaking manoeuvres in the overtaking lateral clearance between motor vehicle and bicycle, as well as in the motor vehicle speed, in contrast with previous research. Two instrumented bicycles were equipped with laser rangefinders, a GPS tracker and three video cameras. They rode along seven rural road segments at a speed between 15 and 25km/h, centred on the paved shoulder, or as close as possible to the outer edge. Besides, this methodology allowed the characterisation of the overtaken vehicle type, its left lane occupation as well as its interaction with opposing traffic flow. For each session, rider’s general risk perception was also registered. The analysis suggested that lateral clearance is not the only factor that influenced rider’s risk perception, although current standards are only related to it. On the contrary, a combined factor of lateral clearance, vehicle type and vehicle speed had a more significant correlation with the perceived risk. This agreed with literature models of transient aerodynamic forces between overtaking and overtaken vehicles. Results showed that effect of heavy vehicles on bicyclists was also strong. In addition to this, the combined factor of clearance and speed was higher on tangent sections where overtaking was permitted.

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  • Autoethnography as a critical approach in sport management: Current applications and directions for future research
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: February 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 20, Issue 1

    Author(s): Joseph N. Cooper, Robin S. Grenier, Charles Macaulay

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the value of autoethnography as a qualitative methodology, document the current literature using autoethnographic approaches, and explore the possibilities for future research in the field of sport management. Using a critical lens to counter dominant ideologies that marginalize certain groups of people through the sustainment of existing power structures and inequities, we sought to address the following inquiries: What is autoethnography and how can it be applied to the critical study of sport management? In doing so, we will explore the benefits of the methodology to the field of sport management as well as the challenges and opportunities created in this form of reflexive study. We also offer suggestions for how to apply autoethnography to a variety of research purposes germane to the field of sport management.





  • Sport-for-development: Inclusive, reflexive, and meaningful research in low- and middle-income settings
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: February 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 20, Issue 1

    Author(s): Emma Sherry, Nico Schulenkorf, Emma Seal, Matthew Nicholson, Russell Hoye

    Research in and around sport-for-development (SFD) has increased steadily since the first scholarly work in the field was conducted in the 1990s. As SFD has grown into an established and respected area of study, it has also diversified in its research approaches and methodologies. In this article, we reflect on our experiences as researchers in low- and middle-income countries and specifically discuss the combination of traditional research methods and innovative approaches to qualitative inquiry within two distinct projects that were funded under a single SFD program. We highlight the efficacy of a flexible, innovative, and locally-relevant research design, and advocate for inclusive, reflexive, and participatory research approaches during the monitoring and evaluation processes. Finally, we identify likely success factors and challenges for current SFD research, and offer recommendations for future qualitative inquiries in and around sport-based development programs.





  • Extending sport-based entrepreneurship theory through phenomenological inquiry
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: February 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 20, Issue 1

    Author(s): Florian Hemme, Dominic G. Morais, Matthew T. Bowers, Janice S. Todd

    This paper adopts a process perspective on sport entrepreneurship in the fitness industry, utilizing phenomenological inquiry into the entrepreneurial lives of eleven fitness entrepreneurs. The purpose of this paper is to reveal how fitness entrepreneurs strategize and pursue competitive advantage in a non-traditional industry. Our findings show that while fitness entrepreneurs share many similarities with non-sport entrepreneurs, fitness entrepreneurs are affected by a variety of factors attributable to working in a non-conventional industry. The present study contributes to the emerging theoretical discussions surrounding the concept of sport entrepreneurship and highlights the value of process perspectives when examining entrepreneurial activities. No empirical studies thus far exist that seek to illuminate the exact nature of individual sport entrepreneurship. This study is a first step in developing testable hypotheses and to contrast sport entrepreneurship to non-sport entrepreneurship. Additionally, our research provides fitness entrepreneurs in the industry with information on what they may face when pursuing their own business objectives. Finally, sport management and entrepreneurship curricula can be enhanced based on information gathered in this study.





  • Authenticity matters: A digital ethnography of FIA World Rally Championship fan forums
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: February 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 20, Issue 1

    Author(s): Hans Erik Næss

    In today’s landscape of sport coverage, the increased competition for attention begs the question of how to provide offerings tailor-made not only to people’s media consumption patterns, but also to their motivation for following a certain sport. This paper argues that digital ethnography provides a way to analyze views on media coverage of sport that promoters can make use of in attracting new consumers and keeping existing ones. By investigating two online forums where the television coverage of FIA World Rally Championship (WRC) from 2010–2013 was discussed, the most important thing to offer rally fans is not technical perfection and sanitized images, but explicit storytelling elements that are authentic—mirroring ‘what rallying is all about.’ This approach is believed to be applicable across a range of sports. Therefore as much stress is laid on the methods involved as on the specifics of this example. Along the way, strengths and weaknesses of this approach, these methods and these findings, are discussed.





  • Volunteerism and volunteer management in sport
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: Available online 30 January 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Pamela Wicker

    This article reflects on existing research examining volunteerism and volunteer management in sport from individual, institutional, multi-level, and policy perspectives. The overview reveals that a substantial body of knowledge has been generated, particularly on the individual perspective and, to a lesser extent, on the institutional perspective. Existing studies from the individual perspective have mainly examined antecedents and experiences of volunteers in sport organizations and at sport events, focusing on topics such as motivation, commitment, and satisfaction, while consequences of volunteerism have attracted less research. On the institutional perspective, research efforts have focused on topics such as recruitment and retention of volunteers and performance management. Studies taking a multi-level perspective give indications about how the institutional or community context affects volunteerism and volunteer management. From a policy perspective, research has mainly looked at challenges for volunteerism resulting from policy implementation and the monetary value of voluntary work. The overview also reveals that many studies have examined the mass of volunteers in general or volunteers in leading positions, while other groups of volunteers, such as voluntary coaches and referees, have attracted less research. After reflecting on topics examined and key findings, the article provides suggestions for future research within each perspective, ensuring that all perspectives and groups of volunteers are attended to.





  • The influence of sports participation on academic performance among students in higher education
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: Available online 19 January 2017
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Fernando Muñoz-Bullón, Maria J. Sanchez-Bueno, Antonio Vos-Saz

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect that participating in extracurricular sporting activities has on academic performance among students in higher education. Prior research on this topic has yielded contradictory results: while some authors find a positive effect of sports participation on academic outcomes, others report a negative impact. Accordingly, the authors seek to provide a more rounded understanding of these mixed findings. The empirical evidence is provided by a panel dataset of undergraduate students who studied at a Spanish University over the period 2008–2014. The academic performance of sports participants are compared with those of non-participants in terms of their outcomes in the form of grades. Results reveal that participation in formal sporting activities is associated with higher grades among students at this university. The analysis reinforces the idea that apart from their health benefits for practitioners, sporting activities lead to the attainment of the performance goals to which higher education institutions aspire.





  • Configurations of business strategy and marketing channels for e-commerce and traditional retail formats: A Qualitative Comparison Analysis (QCA) in sporting goods retailing
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: January 2017
    Source:Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Volume 34

    Author(s): Tobias Johansson, Johan Kask

    This article applies a configurational approach to study the fit between retail format, business strategy, and multi-channel setup. Its empirical material consists of five case studies, and a data set of 74 sporting goods retailers in Sweden. Our results show that a retailer can create strategic advantages when its multi-channel setup fits with its business strategy, and that retail format is important for explaining differences in growth and profit, the former being assigned to e-commerce and the latter to physical stores. Moreover, the study reveals that to some extent online channels also have positive performance implications for physical store retailers.





  • Ticket consumption forecast for Brazilian championship games
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: January–March 2017
    Source:Revista de Administração, Volume 52, Issue 1

    Author(s): Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo, Mauricio Mesquita Bortoluzzo, Sérgio Jurandyr Machado, Tatiana Terabayashi Melhado, Pedro Iaropoli Trindade, Bruno Santos Pereira

    For the efficiency of sales and marketing management of athletic clubs, it is crucial to find a way to appropriately estimate the level of demand for sporting events. More precise estimates allow for an appropriate financial and operational plan and a higher quality of service delivered to the fans. The focus of this study is to analyze and forecast the ticket consumption for soccer games in Brazilian stadiums. We compare the results of the regression model with normally distributed errors (benchmark), the TOBIT model and the Gamma generalized linear model. The models include explanatory variables related to the economic environment, product quality, as well as monetary and non-monetary incentives that people are given to attend sporting events at stadiums. We show that most of these variables are statistically significant to explain the amount of fans that go to stadiums. We used different measures of accuracy to evaluate the performance of demand forecasts and concluded that Gamma generalized linear model presented better results to forecast the ticket consumption for Brazilian championship games, when compared to a benchmark.





  • Time and money expenditure in sports participation: The role of income in consuming the most practiced sports activities in Flanders
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: Available online 26 December 2016
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Erik Thibaut, John Eakins, Steven Vos, Jeroen Scheerder

    Given the recent economic crisis and the risen poverty rates, sports managers need to get insight in the effect of income and other socio-economic determinants on the household time and money that is spent on sports participation. By means of a Tobit regression, this study analyses the magnitude of the income effect for the thirteen most practiced sports by households in Flanders (the Dutch speaking part of Belgium), which are soccer, swimming, dance, cycling, running, fitness, tennis, horse riding, winter sports, martial arts, volleyball, walking and basketball. The results demonstrate that income has a positive effect on both time and money expenditure on sports participation, although differences are found between the 13 sports activities. For example, the effect of income on time and money expenditure is relatively high for sports activities like running and winter sports, while it is lower for other sports such as fitness, horse riding, walking and swimming. Commercial enterprises can use the results of this study to identify which sports to focus on, and how they will organise their segmentation process. For government, the results demonstrate which barriers prevent people from taking part in specific sports activities, based upon which they should evaluate their policy decisions.





  • Managing sport-for-development: Reflections and outlook
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: Available online 22 December 2016
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Nico Schulenkorf

    The field of sport-for-development (SFD) has experienced significant growth and increased academic rigor over the past 15 years. As sport management scholars have started to critically investigate and evaluate SFD programs, they have in turn contributed to the future design and improvement of SFD initiatives that today are more strategically planned and pedagogically sound than ever before. As part of the 20th anniversary series of Sport Management Review, the author looks back at some of the key achievements of sport management scholarship and proposes new and exciting areas for future enquiry. In particular, while past research can be classified under the four headings of SFD programming and design; sustainable management and capacity building; creating and leveraging impacts and outcomes; and conceptual/theoretical advancements, the author suggests that future studies may attend to the managerial concepts of leadership, entrepreneurship and Design Thinking to maximise the potential of sport (management) to contribute to desired, innovative and sustained community development outcomes.





  • Accidentology of mountain sports: An insight provided by the systemic modelling of accident and near-miss sequences
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: Available online 21 December 2016
    Source:Safety Science

    Author(s): Maud Vanpoulle, E. Vignac, B. Soulé

    Accidents are notoriously frequent in mountain sports, but thorough understanding of the mechanisms of accidentality remains limited by the fragmentation of sources and by mostly heterogeneous methodologies. Nonetheless, the effectiveness of prevention must rely on detailed knowledge of typical circumstances and scenarios. Rooted in the statement that an accident is never induced by a single cause but rather by a dynamic combination of factors, this paper explores the opportunities offered by a systemic analysis of experience feedbacks on accidents and close calls. The study identifies risk factors for several hundred mountaineering accident and near miss reports. In order to enhance the benefit of these descriptions and to show the interaction of a broad variety of contributing factors, it introduces graphic models. This is not an attempt to compress the unique richness of each story, but rather to create a tree structure using the concatenation of multiple testimonials, thus enabling researchers to build general lessons out of individual cases.





  • Predicting golf ball trajectories from swing plane: An artificial neural networks approach
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: 15 December 2016
    Source:Expert Systems with Applications, Volume 65

    Author(s): Boris Bačić

    Quantifying and validating descriptive heuristic rules that govern someone’s skills and expertise have been a known philosophical quest since the early Greek philosophers. Inherent to sport coaching is the qualitative assessment of complex human motion patterns, relying on subjective and ‘hard-to-quantify’ criteria that can be subject to experts/coaches disagreement. This paper presents an application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) for the discovery of predictive power of swing plane heuristic rules influencing golf ball trajectories. The golf data set (531 samples from 14 golfers) utilised in the experiments was captured via a ubiquitous computing device embedded in the handle of a driver club. Out of multiple swing performance factors influencing ball trajectory, the selected subset of features for subspace modelling was linked only to the swing plane concept. Quantitative evidence supporting empirical coaching rules for swing plane assessment were obtained by supervised learning of ANN models. Optimised ANN models Radial Basis Function (RBF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), were able to draw inference from captured swing data linking ball trajectories with variations of swing plane (with overall classification of 87%). The obtained swing plane computer model inference, data analysis and implemented concept of generic data export utility support kinesiology, golf coaching, inform club fitting, golf manufacturing technology and demonstrate new cross- and multi-disciplinary integration of sport science, augmented coaching, ubiquitous computing, computational intelligence and the applications of expert systems for growing availability of sport, injury prevention/rehabilitation and golf related data sets.





  • Determinants of the expenditure done by attendees at a sporting event: The case of World Padel Tour
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: November 2016
    Source:European Journal of Management and Business Economics, Volume 25, Issue 3

    Author(s): Héctor V. Jiménez-Naranjo, José Luis Coca-Pérez, Milagros Gutiérrez-Fernández, Antonio Fernández-Portillo

    The influx of people attending sport events involves creating wealth in the environment where they are held. To understand the impacts of these events on the host community, it is necessary to analyze the main explanatory variables in relation to models of buying behavior in tourism, so as to know which variables are the ones that affect most the expenditure done by attendees at a sport event. Therefore, the objective of our research is to present a model to evaluate the influence that certain variables related to the model of consumer behavior have on the expenditure. For that, the variables have been grouped into those related to the personal characteristics of the attendee, and into those others of subjective nature related to the perceptions of those attending a sport event. The research has been based on the use of Structural Equation Models using the technique of Partial Least Square (PLS). The sport event that has been analyzed is the Padel tournament “Cáceres International Open”. The proposed model shows significant results to support the relationships contained in the hypotheses, and provides positive data regarding the predictive relevance of the model.





  • Does size matter? Entrepreneurial orientation and performance in Spanish sports firms
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: November 2016
    Source:Journal of Business Research, Volume 69, Issue 11

    Author(s): Juan Núñez-Pomar, Vicente Prado-Gascó, Vicente Añó Sanz, Josep Crespo Hervás, Ferran Calabuig Moreno

    The entrepreneurial orientation (EO) of firms is the subject of current research in the fields of management and business. However, analyses on this subject in sport companies are lacking. This study analyzes the relationship among EO, firm size, and business performance of Spanish sports service firms. The study analyzes EO as a multidimensional construct (with proactiveness, innovation, and risk-taking dimensions), and business performance considering self-perception (perceived customer satisfaction, perceived market effectiveness, and perceived financial performance) and financial indicators (ROI). The firm size follows the EU's directive for the classification of micro, small, medium, and large firms. The results from a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis show that EO is a sufficient condition for performance in small Spanish sports service companies but not in large firms.





  • Attracting athletes to small-scale sports events using motivational decision-making factors
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: November 2016
    Source:Journal of Business Research, Volume 69, Issue 11

    Author(s): Anestis Fotiadis, Lishan Xie, Yaoqi Li, Tzung-Cheng T.C. Huan

    This study proposes and tests a model related to small-scale sport events using a conceptual model and a survey of athletes who participate in sporting events analyzed using structural equation modeling and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). The fsQCA results yield three models implying that small-scale event participants require a combination of attributes to consider or eventually participate. The SEM findings reveal that involvement, travel motives, and decision factors significantly affect motivational factors, and motivational factors significantly affect decision factors. A combination of positive motivation factors, positive involvement, and negative travel motives can significantly influence decision factors.





  • Think globally, engage pedagogically: Procuring and supervising international field experiences
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: November 2016
    Source:Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, Volume 19

    Author(s): Jason W. Lee, Jennifer J. Kane, Elizabeth A. Gregg, Terence Cavanaugh

    Similar to society in general, globalization of the world economy has changed the landscape of the sport industry (Dicken, 2007; Neirotti, 2015; Thibault, 2009). As competition for the sport fan's discretionary dollar becomes more intense in America, the international market and associated financial opportunities will undoubtedly increase. As a result, it is important that sport management students gain experience both at home and abroad to be highly competitive for employment opportunities in the sport industry (Lee & Lupi, 2010). In order to prepare sport management students for the global marketplace, sport management educators to foster opportunities for students to complete international practicums, internships, and other forms of authentic experiential learning. Educators need to be aware of a variety of resources that can be used to supervise field experiences-particularly "distance" based international field experiences. The purpose of this presentation is to outline best practices associated with online supervision of international experiential learning experiences. Recommendations on creating and maintaining relationships with international partners, strategies for supervision, and methods of evaluation will be included. A step-by-step process model will be presented aimed at providing meaningful learning experiences for students and building enduring partnerships for the institution.

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  • “This class has opened up my eyes”: Assessing outcomes of a sport-for-development curriculum on sport management graduate students
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: November 2016
    Source:Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, Volume 19

    Author(s): Adam Cohen, Jeffrey Levine

    As the field of sport management has grown, so has a plethora of teaching efforts and classroom methodologies. One such effort has entailed introducing the topic of sport-for-development, the utilization of sport to yield positive outcomes in society, to students. While academics within the field of sport-for-development have made great strides in recent years attempting to determine the impact of practitioners utilizing sport for social change, the majority of these efforts have targeted key stakeholders such as participants, staff, volunteers, leadership members and donors. Considering the paucity of literature on the influence of sport-for-development education on sport management students, the purpose of this research was to examine the impact of a sport-for-development class with a student population that had never taken a course of that nature. The authors utilized reflective journaling to fully delve into the thoughts of the 19 study participants in an effort to investigate the perception of the class and the lessons taught. The findings revealed that a sport-for-development classroom setting enhanced knowledge of the field and increased desire to become involved in some capacity. In addition, there was a noticeable gain in awareness of marginalized populations and out-groups through the lens of sport.

    Graphical abstract

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  • Towards a research agenda in collaborative sport governance
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: November 2016
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 19, Issue 5

    Author(s): David Shilbury, Ian O’Boyle, Lesley Ferkins

    Collaborative governance has its origins in public administration and relates to cross-sector collaboration between parties who, by working together, may achieve common goals and more optimum outcomes than by working in isolation. The purpose of this paper is to explore the utility of collaborative governance as a relevant theoretical underpinning upon which to base future sport governance research focussed on the federal model of governance. To do this, we draw on an integrative framework of collaborative governance from the public administration literature to identify relevant research questions instructive for new research directions in sport governance. We offer evidence indicating that the federal model of sport governance is the type of network well-suited to the adoption of a collaborative governance regime but conclude there are barriers and challenges that could inhibit its implementation. The outcome of our work is a research agenda to guide research and theory development that may enhance our understanding of collaborative governance in sport, and of the barriers to its adoption and how they may be overcome.





  • Exploring PERMA in spectator sport: Applying positive psychology to examine the individual-level benefits of sport consumption
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: November 2016
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 19, Issue 5

    Author(s): Jason P. Doyle, Kevin Filo, Daniel Lock, Daniel C. Funk, Heath McDonald

    Sport spectating provides numerous benefits for sport organisations and individuals. In this paper we use a positive psychology approach to examine the individual-level benefits of sport consumption in order to investigate the activation of five domains of well-being: positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment (PERMA). Using a two-study panel research design, we collected qualitative data from a sample of Australian Rules Football consumers. In the first study, we explored how the PERMA domains were activated during the season. Study two included a follow-up interview with eight initial respondents in the off-season. We found evidence of four PERMA domains that were activated in the sport spectator context by a variety of consumer experiences. The emergence of these domains in both studies suggests sport marketers would benefit from actions including: creating more social spaces within their stadiums, hosting regular off-season events, and creating social-media based competitions which promote fan engagement and interactions throughout the calendar year.





  • A distance-running event and life satisfaction: The mediating roles of involvement
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: November 2016
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 19, Issue 5

    Author(s): Mikihiro Sato, Jeremy S. Jordan, Daniel C. Funk

    The increasing popularity of mass participant sport events has provided sport event managers and scholars with an opportunity to contribute to a broader conversation on ways to promote population health. Theoretically, these managed sport services should have the capacity to enhance event participants’ well-being; however, the empirical link between event participation and well-being remains inconclusive. By comparing individuals who participated in a distance-running event with individuals who did not participate in the event, this study examined the contributions of the distance-running event, behavioural loyalty, and psychological involvement to life satisfaction, an indicator of mental health and well-being. Participants (N =742) were recruited from a 10-mile running event held in the United States. The results revealed that participation in a distance-running event was positively associated with weekly running activity, an indicator of behavioural loyalty. In addition, the two facets of psychological involvement in running—pleasure and sign—mediated the relationship between weekly running activity and life satisfaction. These findings provide empirical support that distance-running events can serve as environmental correlates of participants’ behavioural loyalty and that the contribution of behavioural loyalty to life satisfaction lies in whether event participants identify pleasant and symbolic aspects of the activity.





  • The impact of social interaction and team member exchange on sport event volunteer management
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: November 2016
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 19, Issue 5

    Author(s): Younghan Lee, Milyang Kim, Jakeun Koo

    In the present study, the authors aim to understand the sport event volunteer experience in the context of social interaction and its effect on volunteers’ team member exchange and future intentions. Sport event volunteers (N =150) in the Northeast region in the United States participated in the survey. The partial least squares method of structural equation modeling was used to test the hypotheses. Results indicate that online social interaction ties significantly affect team member exchange, which in turn, predicts volunteers’ intentions to repeat volunteering and also spread positive word-of-mouth about volunteering experience to potential volunteers. The current research specifically demonstrates that establishing social interaction ties through social media promotes positive team member exchange that further impacts volunteers’ future intentions. The research findings also imply that social media can be a cost-effective volunteer management tool in terms of volunteer recruitment and for relatively smaller sport organizations that are generally confronted with limited resources.





  • Plotting the motivation of student volunteers in sports-based outreach work in the North East of England
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: November 2016
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 19, Issue 5

    Author(s): John W. Hayton

    This paper examines the evolution of student volunteers’ motivation during their participation in a sports-based outreach project and how their experiences during the programme serve to influence their commitment and retention to it. The Sport Universities North East England (SUNEE) project is a university-led community outreach initiative that provides the region's student volunteers with vast opportunities to gain both experience and qualifications as sports coaches, mentors and leaders by working with a range of hard-to-reach groups. This work draws on qualitative data generated from semi-structured interviews (n =40) and describes a sequence of motivational transitions undergone by student volunteers over the course of their involvement in the project. In order to illustrate this, the paper applies the socio-psychological framework of Self-Determination Theory (SDT) to not only index the type of motivations that compel students to volunteer on the SUNEE project, but to also track motivational adaptation and reveal the features occurring within the project, which serve to either facilitate volunteer motivation or retention (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000). By using the example of the SUNEE project, this research demonstrates how students’ motivation to volunteer changes from the extrinsic (i.e., instrumental reasons such as enhancing one's employability profile) to the intrinsic (i.e., enjoying the experience) motivations the longer the person has taken part in the project. The findings demonstrate the utility of the SDT as a framework with which to understand student motivation to volunteer within a university-led sports-based community outreach setting. The theoretical contributions of the study to the literature on student volunteering are outlined, and implications are drawn for practice and future research.





  • Scoring on and off the field?: The impact of Australia's inclusion in the Asian Football Confederation
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: November 2016
    Source:Sport Management Review, Volume 19, Issue 5

    Author(s): Sheranne Fairley, Hannah Lovegrove, Natalie L. Smith, B. David Tyler

    The case follows Australia's move from the Oceania Football Federation (OFC) to the Asian Football Confederation (AFC). The case explores the impact of Australia's inclusion on other AFC member nations and highlights that Australia's relative success in the AFC may not be perceived as positive by all stakeholders within the AFC. The case considers the effect of Australia's inclusion in the AFC on the AFC in general, and also on both the sport of soccer in Australia, and the broader Australian economy.





  • Passion and pride in professional sports: Investigating the role of workplace emotion
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: Available online 29 October 2016
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Steve Swanson, Aubrey Kent

    The current study examined the influence of passion and pride on employees of professional sport organizations. Anecdotally, much has been noted about the role that emotions play in making the sport industry one of the world’s largest and most visible. However, empirical investigation is lacking in relation to those who choose a career in this environment. Results from an analysis of 933 employee survey responses representing 89 teams across 5 leagues suggest that passion and pride play an important role influencing commonly-assessed workplace attitudes and behaviors. Notably, obsessive passion seems to work in a distinctly positive fashion within professional sport workplaces, as compared to its negative influence on employees within other non-sport industries researched previously.





  • Do they make a difference? Professional team sports clubs’ effects on migration and local growth: Evidence from Denmark
    23 mai 2017
    Publication date: Available online 15 October 2016
    Source:Sport Management Review

    Author(s): Rasmus K. Storm, Frederik Thomsen, Tor Georg Jakobsen

    It is a common argument in Denmark that municipal involvement in professional team sports can be justified on the grounds of local impact. The use of public funds to directly or indirectly subsidise local professional team sports clubs (PTSCs) is often seen as warranted due to the PTSCs’ positive effects on local economic growth or (inbound) municipal migration. However, can PTSCs be associated with tangible effects at all? This question has never been answered properly in a European context. Based on data covering the 2008–2013 period, and using spatial panel regression models, this article examines this issue in relation to three dominant professional sports in Denmark: football (soccer), handball and ice hockey. The study finds effects for only one of the sports examined, with Danish handball clubs exercising a marginal effect on average income. Ice hockey’s effect is negative and football remains insignificant in all models deployed. Concerning migration, negative effects are found in relation to female handball clubs. These findings are consistent with previous research and have implications for local sport policies and managers. Municipal politicians, public authorities or sport managers should no longer rationalise the use of public funds for local PTSCs on the assumption of (tangible) economic effects or population growth, as it appears to be an inefficient use of public money. If policy makers want to increase municipal income or inbound migration, they should engage themselves in developing more appropriate strategies.





Mis à jour le 13 mars 2013